What Is The Backstop Agreement In Brexit
Boris Johnson voted twice against Theresa May`s deal in Parliament, in part because he opposed the backstop, but decided to support it for the third time when May put him in the House of Commons. Talks resumed in the following days, so a joint report was published on 8 December to report on the commitments that must be taken into account in the withdrawal agreement. Both the UK and the EU negotiating teams expressed their preference to avoid a “hard border” and proposed a draft withdrawal agreement containing a backstop: he reiterated his criticism of the backstop – while he was a candidate for Conservative leaders, and since becoming Prime Minister, he has said he will not approve a deal involving a backstop. The Irish government and the northern Irish nationalists (favourable to a united Ireland) supported the protocol, while the Unionists (who preferred the United Kingdom) opposed it. In early 2019, the Westminster Parliament voted three times against ratifying the withdrawal agreement, rejecting the backstop. Many Brexit supporters say “alternative regulations” could be used to avoid border controls. In October 2019, the new Johnson government renegotiated the project and replaced the backstop. Under the new protocol, the whole of the UK leaves the EU customs union as a single customs territory. Northern Ireland will be included in the UK`s future trade agreements, but will not have tariffs or restrictions on goods crossing the Irish border in both directions, creating a de facto customs border in the Irish Sea with Britain. There is also a unilateral exit mechanism for the Northern Ireland Assembly to leave the protocol by a simple majority.    This new protocol has been described as “Chequers for Northern Ireland” by some, as it is comparable to the British plan for future relations of Theresa May`s Chequers, previously rejected by the EU and criticised by Johnson.  The completion of the European Single Market in 1992 (initiated by Commissioner Lord Cockfield) and the Good Friday Agreement (negotiated by US Senator Mitchell) in 1998 were considered possible to dismantle the important border infrastructure between Northern Ireland and the Republic of Ireland.  On 13 November 2018, a modest speech was made in the House of Commons calling for the release of legal advice given to the government on the proposed EU withdrawal agreement.
The government`s response was presented to Parliament on December 3 by Attorney General Geoffrey Cox. However, the next day it was considered incomplete by MPs, which resulted in a vote in which, for the first time in history, the UK government failed to respect Parliament.  On 29 March 2017, Prime Minister Theresa May launched the two-year Brexit negotiation process, with a deadline set for Article 50 of the EU Treaty.  In response, the other EU countries (EU27) have published their “phased” negotiating strategy, which has postponed any negotiations on future relations with the UK (the non-binding “political declaration”) until a binding withdrawal agreement is reached, which provides that the “backstop” could be replaced by other arrangements to avoid physical controls at the Irish border. , although he did not specify what those agreements would be.